Throat Troubles – Signs and Symptoms

Throat Troubles? It Could Be Strep! Here's What You Need to Know


Throat Troubles: Strep throat, also known as streptococcal pharyngitis, is a common bacterial infection that affects the throat and tonsils. It is caused by a group of bacteria called Streptococcus pyogenes or group A streptococcus. Strep throat can occur at any age but is most common in children and teenagers. Understanding the risk factors, causes, types, signs and symptoms, investigations, treatment, prevention, and lifestyle changes associated with strep throat is crucial for its management and prevention. This article provides a comprehensive overview of strep throat based on the World Health Organization (WHO) information.

Risk Factors

  1. Age: Children between the ages of 5 and 15 are at higher risk.
  2. Close Contact: Being near an infected person, especially in crowded environments like schools or daycare centres.
  3. Weakened Immune System: Individuals with weakened immune systems are more susceptible to infections, including strep throat.
  4. Seasonal Factors: Strep throat is more common during late fall and early spring.


Strep throat is primarily caused by the bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes. This bacterium is highly contagious and can be spread through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes. It can also spread by sharing utensils, food, or drinks with an infected person. Proper hygiene practices, such as handwashing and covering the mouth and nose while coughing or sneezing, can help prevent the spread of the infection.


  1. Acute Strep Throat: This is the most common type, characterized by sudden onset and severe symptoms. It typically lasts for a few days and resolves with appropriate treatment.
  2. Recurrent Strep Throat: Some individuals may experience repeated episodes of strep throat. This condition requires further evaluation to identify underlying causes and appropriate management strategies.

Signs and Symptoms

  1. Sudden and severe sore throat
  2. Painful swallowing
  3. Red and swollen tonsils
  4. White patches or pus on the tonsils
  5. Swollen lymph nodes in the neck
  6. Fever
  7. Headache
  8. Fatigue or malaise
  9. Nausea or vomiting
  10. Rash (scarlet fever, a complication of strep throat)


When strep throat is suspected, healthcare providers may perform specific investigations to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other causes. These may include:

  1. Throat Culture: A sample is taken from the back of the throat and sent to a laboratory to identify the presence of strep bacteria.
  2. Rapid Antigen Test: This test provides quick results by detecting specific proteins produced by strep bacteria. However, a negative rapid test result may still require confirmation with a throat culture.


Strep throat is usually treated with antibiotics to relieve symptoms, prevent complications, and reduce the risk of spreading the infection to others. Commonly prescribed antibiotics include penicillin, amoxicillin, or erythromycin for those allergic to penicillin. It is essential to complete the full course of antibiotics as prescribed by the healthcare provider, even if symptoms improve.

Pain relievers such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen may also be recommended to alleviate sore throat pain and reduce fever. Gargling with warm salt water and staying hydrated can provide additional relief.


  1. Hand Hygiene: Regularly wash hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, especially after coughing, sneezing, or being in public places.
  2. Avoid Close Contact: Minimize close contact with individuals who have a confirmed or suspected strep throat infection.
  3. Cover Mouth and Nose: Cover the mouth and nose with a tissue or the elbow when coughing or sneezing to prevent the spread of respiratory droplets.
  4. Don’t Share Personal Items: Avoid sharing utensils, drinking glasses, or food with others, particularly those infected.
  5. Clean and Disinfect: Clean and disinfect frequently touched objects and surfaces, especially in common areas.

Lifestyle Changes

  1. Boosting the Immune System: Maintain a healthy lifestyle with a balanced diet, regular exercise, adequate sleep, and stress management.
  2. Good Hydration: Drink plenty of fluids to keep the throat moist and prevent dehydration.
  3. Healthy Habits: Avoid smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke as it can irritate the throat and weaken the immune system.
  4. Proper Nutrition: Consume a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins to support immune function.

Example: Sarah, a 10-year-old girl, started complaining of a sore throat and difficulty swallowing. Her symptoms worsened, and she developed a fever and headache. Concerned, her parents took her to the doctor. After performing a throat culture, the healthcare provider diagnosed Sarah with strep throat. She was prescribed a course of antibiotics and advised to rest, stay hydrated, and take pain relievers as needed. Sarah’s parents were educated about preventing the spread of strep throat within the family by practising good hand hygiene and not sharing personal items.

Throat Troubles
Throat Troubles

strep throat is a common bacterial infection that primarily affects the throat and tonsils. Understanding its risk factors, causes, types, signs and symptoms, investigations, treatment, prevention, and lifestyle changes can aid in its management and prevention. By following the guidance provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) and healthcare professionals, individuals can reduce the risk of strep throat, promote their overall health, and limit the spread of the infection.

Author: Dr. Rabia
Dr Rabia Akhtar, MBBS(Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery), has perceived her graduation from India. Special Interest: Surgery, Chronic disease, Emergency Medicine, Paediatrics, Women's Health.
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