Categories: OBGY

Cervical Cancer: Risk Factors, Causes, Transmission, Signs and Symptoms, Screening, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention


Cervical cancer is a significant health concern worldwide, but with appropriate knowledge and preventive measures, its impact can be reduced. This article provides a comprehensive overview of cervical cancer, including risk factors, causes, transmission, signs and symptoms, screening methods, diagnosis, treatment options, and prevention strategies.

Risk Factors

Several risk factors contribute to the development of cervical cancer:

  1. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection: Persistent infection with high-risk HPV types, especially HPV 16 and 18, is the most significant risk factor for cervical cancer.
  2. Weakened Immune System: Individuals with compromised immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or undergoing immunosuppressive therapy, are at a higher risk of developing cervical cancer.
  3. Early Sexual Activity: Engaging in sexual activity at an early age increases the risk of HPV infection and subsequently cervical cancer.
  4. Multiple Sexual Partners: Having multiple sexual partners or having a partner with multiple sexual partners increases the likelihood of HPV exposure and cervical cancer development.
  5. Smoking: Smoking weakens the immune system and can lead to the persistence of HPV infection, increasing the risk of cervical cancer.

Causes and Transmission

Cervical cancer is primarily caused by persistent infection with high-risk types of HPV. HPV is commonly transmitted through sexual contact, including vaginal, anal, and oral sex. Skin-to-skin contact in the genital area is enough for the virus to spread. Vertical transmission from mother to child during childbirth is also possible but rare.

Signs and Symptoms

In the early stages, cervical cancer may not cause noticeable symptoms. However, as the cancer progresses, the following signs and symptoms may occur:

  1. Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding: Unusual bleeding between periods, after sexual intercourse, or after menopause may indicate cervical cancer.
  2. Abnormal Vaginal Discharge: Increased vaginal discharge that is watery, bloody, or has a foul odor can be a sign of cervical cancer.
  3. Pelvic Pain: Persistent pelvic pain, discomfort during sexual intercourse, or pain during urination can be symptoms of advanced cervical cancer.
  4. Back or Leg Pain: In advanced stages, cervical cancer may spread to nearby tissues, leading to back or leg pain.

Screening and Diagnosis

Regular screening is crucial for early detection of cervical cancer or precancerous changes. The following screening methods are used:

  1. Pap Smear: A Pap smear involves collecting cells from the cervix to detect any abnormal changes. It is recommended for women starting around the age of 21 and should be repeated at regular intervals according to individual risk factors.
  2. HPV Test: An HPV test detects the presence of high-risk HPV types in cervical cells. It may be used in conjunction with a Pap smear or as a primary screening method for women over the age of 30.

If abnormal results are obtained from screening tests, further diagnostic procedures may be performed:

  1. Colposcopy: A colposcopy involves examining the cervix using a special magnifying instrument. It allows the healthcare provider to closely examine any abnormal areas and collect tissue samples if necessary.
  2. Biopsy: If abnormal cells are identified during a colposcopy, a biopsy may be performed to confirm the presence of cervical cancer or precancerous changes. A biopsy involves the removal of a small tissue sample for laboratory analysis.


The choice of treatment for cervical cancer depends on the stage and extent of the disease. Common treatment options include:

  1. Surgery: Surgery may involve the removal of the abnormal tissue, such as a cone biopsy, or the removal of the entire uterus (hysterectomy) in advanced cases.
  2. Radiation Therapy: Radiation therapy uses high-energy X-rays or other forms of radiation to destroy cancer cells. It may be used alone or in combination with surgery or chemotherapy.
  3. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy involves using drugs to kill cancer cells. It may be used before surgery to shrink tumors, after surgery to eliminate remaining cancer cells, or in advanced cases to control the spread of cancer.


Cervical cancer is highly preventable through the following measures:

  1. HPV Vaccination: Vaccination against HPV is recommended for both males and females before sexual activity begins. Vaccination can protect against the most common high-risk HPV types, including HPV 16 and 18.
  2. Safe Sexual Practices: Practicing safe sex, including consistent and correct condom use, can reduce the risk of HPV transmission.
  3. Regular Screening: Routine cervical cancer screening, such as Pap smears and HPV tests, allows for early detection and treatment of precancerous changes.
  4. Health Education and Awareness: Raising awareness about cervical cancer, its risk factors, and prevention strategies is vital. Education on the importance of vaccination, regular screenings, and safe sexual practices can empower individuals to take control of their health.

Example: Sarah, a 28-year-old woman, regularly attends her gynecologist for check-ups. During her routine Pap smear, abnormal cells are detected. Sarah undergoes further diagnostic procedures, including a colposcopy and biopsy, which confirm the presence of cervical cancer. After discussing her treatment options with her healthcare team, Sarah undergoes surgery followed by radiation therapy. With regular follow-ups and continued surveillance, Sarah successfully overcomes cervical cancer and becomes an advocate for cervical cancer awareness, encouraging women to prioritize screening and prevention strategies.


Cervical cancer is a significant health issue, but through understanding its risk factors, causes, transmission, signs and symptoms, screening methods, diagnosis, treatment options, and prevention strategies, individuals can take proactive steps to prevent and detect the disease at an early stage. By emphasizing vaccination, safe sexual practices, regular screenings, and education, the incidence of cervical cancer can be reduced, leading to improved health outcomes and saved lives.

This post was last modified on July 8, 2023 7:04 pm

Dr. Rabia

Dr Rabia Akhtar, MBBS(Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery), has perceived her graduation from India. Special Interest: Surgery, Chronic disease, Emergency Medicine, Paediatrics, Women's Health.

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